Roman And Greek Kingdoms

     The Romans, unlike the Greeks were not gifted in abstract thought. They
constructed no original system of philosophy, invented no major literary forms,
and made no scientific discoveries. Yet, they excelled in the art of government
and empire building, they created a workable world-state and developed skills in
administration, law, and practical affairs. In the Punic Wars, the Roman
republic defeated the Carthaginians in North Africa and Rome inherited the

Pergamene Kingdom from the last of the Attalids in 133 B.C. Rome became heir to
the legacy of the Hellenistic world of the Greeks. The Hellenistic period which
lasted 300 years in is noted by the death of Alexander in 323 B.C. It is marked
by its rich, sophisticated and diverse culture. Many Romans were eager to merge
with this Greek culture in order to exhibit the dominance of their rule over
conquered societies. This exhibition of dominance was the primary motivation of
the Roman desire to possess fine works of Greek Art. Whereas, other Romans, were
convinced that the pursuit of the assimilation of foreign cultures would only
harm the republic. During this time, much social disintegration and unhindered
individualism threatened political stability. However, the adoption of Greek art
for Roman needs was very popular. An educated Roman was well versed in the
history of Greek Art and was socially compelled to collect Greek art for
personal embellishment. The modernization of the old Sanctuary of Fortuna

Primigenia is an example of the new Roman attitude toward art and architecture
as Greek artists migrated in vast numbers to the new capital of the world. Roman
generals and their quest to establish Rome as the new unchallenged capital of
the world justified the expense of replanning the old sanctuary. This
accomplishment would bring them personal glory and uplift the majestic status of

Roman people. Roman architecture benefited as the city's wealth grew as other
leaders contributed to the expansion of new monuments. Lucias Cornelius Sculla,
(82-78 B.C.) led the Romans is Social War and later became dictator and master
of the city of Rome. He brought Corinthian columns form the temple of Olympian

Zeus in Athens to renew the shrine of the Roman Jupiter in the capital. This act
symbolized the transferal of spiritual power from the aristocracy of the Senate
to autocratic leaders, and art began to be shaped by their preferences. This
satisfied the Roman desire for grandiose architecture by being the model of

Hellenistic majestic ornate style. The first leader to resolve the conflict of
this desire for "magnificence beyond anything the world had ever seen"
and the moralistic fear that Greek art was "corrupting Roman virtues"
was Augustus Caesar. He used art as imperialistic treasures with his building
program. Some examples of his architecture are; the Forum, Council House and

Temple of Apollo on the Palatine. These examples illustrate effectively the
might and grandeur of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus brought forth the
mindfulness of other art forms, such as literature. Virgil (70-19 B.C.), was a

Roman poet, who wrote the great epic poem, the Aeneid (30-19 B.C.) during the
last ten years his life. This masterpiece contained 12 books, and was written in
dedication and praise to the glories of Augustus and his empire. It celebrated
the Roman imperial values in the role of its Trojan hero Aeneas, who is destined
to found a new city in Italy. Virgil was patronized by Maecenas on behalf of

Octavian (later the emperor Augustus). He composed in the traditional Homeric
meter of hexameters. In contrast to the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Aeneid, is
considered the first great literary epic, while Homer's epics are deemed works
of oral poetry. Virgil constructed this epic at the request of Augustus, to
glorify Rome whereas, Homer chose to create based on societal morals. The late
art of the Roman republic is synonomous to the last stage of the Hellenistic art
period of Greece. Most masterpieces of Roman art are Greek. Imitations were
common at that time, due to the Roman admiration of Hellenistic artistry. Roman
art greatly resembled Hellenistic art in both style and convention. As
illustrated by the famous antique sculpture, Laocoön and His Sons. This group
was discovered in Rome in 1506. It is believed to be an original carving of the
second century B.C. and it was thought to have been based on an Hellenistic
masterpiece depicting Laocoön and only one son. It was found in the remains of
the palace of the emperor Titus. Other fragments of Hellenistic groupings were
found in a grotto that served as a summer banquet hall of the emperor's seaside
villa at Sperlonga. The legend of Laocoön is told by Virgil's Aeneid, in the
voice of the long dead defeated Trojans, describing Laocoön as the priest of

Neptune of Troy. Moreover, during the last year of the Trojan War it appeared as
though the Greeks had given up and broke encampment leaving a wooden horse as an
offering to the goddess Athena. However, in fact the horse was hollow and was
filled with armed men. Cassandra daughter of King Priam of Troy, was bestowed
with the gift of prophecy from Apollo, who loved her. Nevertheless, she was also
cursed by Apollo as a lunatic when she refused to return his love. No one
believed her predictions of the Trojans deception. Laocoön warned the Trojans
"I fear the Greeks even when they come bearing gifts." Laocoön
warnings only enraged Poseidon who was angry with Troy. Poseidon the god of sea
(Neptune) unleashed two sea serpents out of the sea to the land towards Laocoön,
who was standing with his sons. Poseidon sought revenge on Athens since losing a
wager with Athena. The serpents attacked Laocoön's sons first and Laocoön
struggled fiercely to save them but both he and his sons were strangled to
death. All at once the Trojans were convinced to ignore Lacunas advice and
eagerly pulling the horse into the city and were subsequently destroyed.

"Age Of Fable Or Beauties Of Mythology" Webster's Encyclopedia.

Webster's Interactive Encyclopedia 1998.© Encore Software. 1998 Helicon

Publishing Ltd. CD "Cassandra." Microsoft® Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia.
© 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Hanfmann, George M. A.

The Problem of Roman Art. A Modern Survey of the Art of Imperial Rome. (Little,

Brown and Company) New York. 1975. Pp. 15-19, 24-26 "Homer." Microsoft®

Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia. © 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights
reserved. "Laocoön." Microsoft® Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia. ©

1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. "Virgil."

Microsoft® Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia. © 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All
rights reserved. Virgil. The Aeneid, Book II. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. © 1971
by Allen Mandelbaum. By permission of Bantam Books. Inc. All Rights Reserved.

P.p. 36-37. "World Civilizations: The Classical Period In WorldHistory."

Webster's Encyclopedia. Webster's Interactive Encyclopedia 1998.© Encore

Software. 1998 Helicon Publishing Ltd. CD