World War I


The Causes of the War OK, in a nutshell, World War Iís cause went as
far back as the early 1800s. People controlled by other nations began to evolve
peopleís feelings of nationalism. The French Revolution of 1789 brought a new
feeling to the word Nationalism. People who spoke French, German, Italian, ext.
felt that they should have a separate government in a country where everyone
spoke the same language. Unfortunately, we canít please everyone and this
demand they had was something impossible that could be done. As time passed
people began to establish war cults or military alliances. The members from
these groups would discriminate and verbally abuse the people, which didnít
speak their language. Warmongers criticized at foreign ways of doing things.

Sometimes newspaper stories help spread publicity. Some German leaders strongly
urged commercial & political expansion to the east, mostly in Asia. II-

Military Alliances Military alliances were another of the many causes of World

War I. When the German Empire was united in 1871, Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck
hoped for a period of international peace. He looked for allies to support

Germany. It was then that in 1882 Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy signed a
treaty called, " The Triple Alliance." The treaty was made to protect them
from attacks from France or Russia. Germany & Italy feared France &

Austria-Hungary feared Russia. The three members of the alliance formed a
powerful block in central Europe. Unfortunately, Austria-Hungary & Italy
were not very friendly. They argued mostly over land and/or territory that Italy
thought they should have. So, both countries competed to see who would take
control of the Adriatic Sea first. When the war broke out in 1914, Italy
didnít keep their word about the contract they had agreed to in the treaty. It
turns out they had made a secret treaty with France in 1902. As a result of that
they had to remain neutral then declared war on Austria-Hungary. After the

Triple Alliance formed, the rest of the countries in Europe saw that they were
at a disadvantage. The disadvantage was that if there ever was an international
crisis, Great Britain, France & Russia would have to fight for themselves
but the Triple Alliance would have the advantage of acting together as one. Then
in 1894, France signed a defensive alliance with Russia. Then only by itself was

Great Britain. Soon after they faced naval rivalry & growing mercenary with

Germany. In 1904, Great Britain & France reached a cordial understanding or
how you would say in French, "Entente Cordial." By the terms in the
agreement, they settled all the disagreements they had about almost anything
& everything. Most important being colonies. Both nations became partners.

Then France succeeded in bringing Britain and Russia together. In 1907 the two
nations signed the Anglo-Russian Entente," it was kind of like the cordial
agreement that linked France, Russia & Great Britain was called "The

Triple Entente." Men, Battlefronts & Strategy I- Strategy of the War The
chief of the German general staff Count Alfred Von Schlieffen planned a very
little simple strategy in 1905 and changed it in 1912. His plan was that German
armies were to crush France in a campaign by going through Belgium, which was
neutral. Now, the Germans were planning to crush Russia, then planned to make

Britain surrender. Then they would sweep into Asia & yes, they would try and
conquer them too. This guy expected a 2 front war & planned that

Austria-Hungary and some small German force in East Prussia would take the
eastern front. But no. The Allied strategy called for attacks by the French
armies in Lorraine upon the start of the war. OK, so the plan was that. On the

Eastern front it would be Russia trying to invade Germany through East Prussia
and attack Austria-Hungary in Galicia. They hoped to strike westward at Germany
while the Allied Armies went east. The War I- The US enters WWI (1917, 4th year)

Early in 1917, the Central Powers, which consisted of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria,

Germany & the Ottoman Empire, were at a strong position. They had in control

Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, most of Belgium & Northern France.

Then, yes, the USA entered the war. And so the tables began to turn in favor of
the Allies. Germany unrestricted Submarine welfare so this caused the US to join
the Allies. The news of the outbreak of the war in 1914 had surprised many

Americans. As a result, President Woodrow Wilson had declared that "the US
would be neutral in fact, as well as in name." When the Germans torpedoed

Lusitania, in 1915 they killed128 Americans. So President Wilson thought the US
would not enter the war but as we already know, he was wrong. Germany approached

Mexico for alliance; this was heard from the British when they intercepted a
message. There was a record number of sinking of US merchant ships. Germany has
thrust war on the US. On April 2nd, 1917 the president read a war message that
was sent to him which read: "The world must be safe for democracy." After
this the US didnít sign anything, but simply associated themselves with the

Allies, although they were unprepared. II- The Allies Attack (1917) So the

Germans would have benefit, they had to figure an out an attack. They went on

March of 1917 off to the battle line, prepared. The Germans called it the

Sigfried Line and the Allies called it the Hidenburg Line. The Allies carried
out the only offensive operation on the battlefront. That year ended without
much change. In 1917, the French executed Mata Hari, who was a Dutch dancer that
was spying for the Germans. Feelings against Germany were strong as war
progressed. School kids were affected much by the war as well. They were not
allowed to learn German or German Literature. People criticized any techniques
that were said to spies. Therefore, the Dept. Of Justice was asked to keep close
look for the spies. The Final Years I- The Final Year (1918) The Allies won
fined victory in 1918. Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary &

Germany signed armistice. On January 8th, WilsonFreedom of∑announced
his 14 points. The 14 points included the following:   Reduction in∑ Trade Barriers ∑ Amend to Secret Diplomacy ∑Navigation   Evacuation
of Central Powers troops∑ Adjustment of Colonial Claims ∑Amendments   Creation of
an association∑

Re-establishment of Poland ∑from Allied Countries   Independence
for the people of∑of nations to work for permanent peace Home rule for the non-Turkish parts of the Ottoman Empire. The∑Austria-Hungary14 points gave hope to many enemy people for a peace settlement. II- The

Last Campaign After a quiet winter the Central powers planned to overwhelm the
allied armies before the full benefit of American aid could arrive. Hidenburg
promised he would be in Paris by April 1st. In March, German armies under

Ludendorff struck along a 50-mile front. The Allies gave way slowly but in other
sections fast. In April the Allies formed unified command. On May 31st, the

Germans reached the reached the banks of the Marne. It lost 7,800 men. France
then renamed the spot "the wood of Brigade of Marne" to honor the heroic
stand of the man. American troops blocked an enemy offensive at Ch?teau-Thierry & prevented Germans from sweeping across the Marne to

Paris. 5 major battles raged at the same time. After July 18th the Allied
offensive never stopped until the truce. On August 8th, the Allies led by

Canadian & Australian troops attacked the Germans fiercely at Amines. On

August 26th, Germans began retreating to the Hidenburg line. The battle was
described as "The Black Day." About 1,200,000 Americans fought on the Battle
of the Meuse-Argonne. About 1 of every 10 people was killed. III- The End of

Central Powers Austria-Hungary also planned a huge drive to make Italy withdraw
from the war. But floods and resistance by Gen. Armand Diazís troops stopped
the Austro-Hungarian armies in June. In October, Diaz started an offensive to
the northeast across the Piave River. He split the Austro-Hungarian Empire into

2 and destroyed them. On Sept 29th, Bulgaria signed an armistice at Salonika.

Another member of the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire signed a peace
agreement on October 31st. In the late of 1918, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks
& Poles declared independence. IV- Results of the War. The peace settlements
healed many wounds, but also caused new ones. The Allies had emphasized the
principle of self-determination. This caused the flame of nationalism to burn
more brightly than it had 1914. The Allies formed the League of Nations to
settle disputes in a peaceful way. Unfortunately, member nations didnít always
support these agencies in International Dispute. V- The Home Front The Home

Front in Europe came under intense bombing. The war destroyed the industrial and
community lives of many cities, towns and villages. It closed and/or destroyed
schools, factories, roads and railroads. In many countries people had to depend
on food supplied by the government. In Eastern Europe many left their homes
because they were scared of invasion. Refugees moved from place to place in
search of food and shelter. After the war, people who went back to their homes
went to find that their villages, towns and/or cities didnít exist.

Fortunately, the US supplied food and clothing to an extent. BY: PAULA--12/99

Bibliography

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Encarta 98© 1999 CD-ROM. © Copyright 1998

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Encarta 96© 1995 CD-ROM. © Microsoft 1996.

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Comptonís Encyclopedia 1998 © CopyrightOnlineŗ1997

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Electronic Encyclopedia, Third Edition.  Encyclopedia
www.encyclopedia.com © Copyright 1994, Columbia University Press